Professionals or Practitioners? The MacIntyrean Social Practice Paradigm and the Study of Journalism Development
James L. Aucoin
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Since the early twentieth century, when journalism
training moved from the newsroom to the university, the professionalization
model has been the dominant paradigm for explaining the development
of American journalism. Journalism was among several occupations that
saw professionalization as the means to enhanced authority insociety.
1 Confronted with the Jacksonian Era antipathy to elitism, the traditional
professions of law, medicine, and the ministry sought to reclaim their
authority in society through improved professionalization. 2 Meanwhile,
other occupations, including journalism, sought to establish authority
of their own by entering the elite realm of the professions. 3 According
to Christians, et al, (1978) "professional status, over and over
again, was claimed to be the best method of improving the reputation
and dignity of journalism." 4 Early journalism educators, in fact,
worked towards establishing the recognized attributes of a profession,
including the identification of a specialized body of knowledge, specialized
training, a regulatory code of ethics championing public service over
individual achievement, and licensing. 5 By the late 1940s, journalism
educator Frank Luther Mott could declare that journalism had virtually
fulfilled the requirements of professionalization (with the exception
of licensing, which was seen as an impossible achievement since it would
violate the First Amendment), and "journalism . . . is today a
However, the professionalization model has remained
the primary means of describing the development of journalism. 11 Bender
(1991) used the professionalization model to study the development of
trial coverage by the press. 12 And Dooley (1991) studied how libel
trials of the 19th Century contributed to the professionalization of
Following the ground-breaking work on professionalization
of journalists by McLeod and Hawley (1964), numerous studies have attempted
to gauge the level of professionalism among journalists and public relations
practitioners, based on the assumption that professionalism is a positive
goal for journalists and other professional communicators [McLeod and
Rush (1969a, 1969b), Menanteau-Horta (1967), Garrison and Salwen (1989),
Golding (1977), Janowitz (1975), LeRoy (1972-73), Weinthal and O'Keefe
(1974), Linehan (1970), Wright (1976), Nayman, McKee and Lattimore (1977),
Nayman (1973), and Bissland and Rentner (1989)]. 18
First of all, whether journalism has a specialized body of knowledge and theory and requires specialized training remains problematic. While mass communication scholars have produced a growing body of theory and journalism schools and departments offer degrees in journalism, the fact remains that journalism can be and is practiced by anyone with access to a photocopier or other means of multiple dissemination of his or her reports. 21 Knowledge of the theory or a degree in journalism is not required. In fact, a recent survey of journalists found that fewer than 50 percent have degrees in journalism and fewer than 65 percent had any journalism education at all. 22
Likewise, journalism has no truly regulatory code of ethics. While codes exist, promulgated by various journalism organizations or by individual news organizations, none have the overarching authority of regulation. 23 In addition, an attempt to establish a national press council to oversee media performance failed, mainly because the major news organizations, including The New York Times, the Washington Post, and the three major television networks refused to participate, arguing that it would violate the autonomy of the press. 24 In short, while many journalists are fired for ethical lapses, no one can be prevented from practicing journalism because he or she has violated journalism ethics. 25
Moreover, licensing of journalists would clearly be a violation of the First Amendment freedom of the press. 26 Physicians, nurses, engineers, and lawyers -- all clearly members of professions -- cannot practice their skills without a license. In addition, they must pass a qualifying examination before their licenses can be granted. And if they violate the rules of the profession, their licenses can be suspended or revoked. But to give journalism such authority would limit freedom of expression and freedom of the press -- cherished rights of a democratic state.
In other words, the definition of a profession includes
the ability to regulate who practices the profession, and journalism
has no such ability. To give journalism such power, in fact, would violate
the First Amendment and the spirit of free expression.
produce original and creative writing of high quality
within the meaning of the [Fair Labor Standards Act] regulations; they
have far more than general intelligence; they are thoroughly trained
before employment; their performance as writers is individual, interpretative
and analytical both in the writing itself and in the process by which
the writing must be prepared; and their performance is measured and
paid accordingly. A special talent is necessary to succeed. 31
But the limitations of the professionalization model
for the study of the development of journalism go beyond the fact that
journalism is not a sociologically or legally recognized profession.
Even if it could be proved that journalism is a profession -- for example,
by using altered forms of the traditional definition of a profession
– the professionalization model does not provide the means to answer
the questions that need to be addressed when studying
One limitation of the professionalization model is that
it is too restrictive to take in all those who engage in a practice.
To use the professionalization model, one must accept the notion that
to carry out the practice, one must belong to the profession. To call
a reporter a "professional," in other words, assumes that
Others have made this mistake in writing the histories other occupations. Historians John Higham and Peter Novick wrote separate, but equally brilliant, histories of "the professional historian," using a professionalization researching and writing history. 37 Their histories are excellent as far as they go, but the professionalization model limited their explorations to those who earned Ph.D.s in history and taught in university departments of history. Ignored in both studies were the achievements and contributions to "the profession" by scholars with degrees and teaching positions in other disciplines, such as journalism, medicine or sociology, but who nonetheless practice "the history profession." Examples from journalism alone are instructive. Frank Luther Mott, former journalist and dean of the University of Missouri School of Journalism, earned graduate degrees in English and literature, but taught and became renown as a historian of magazines, newspapers and books. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in History for volumes two and three of his five-volume A History of American Magazines. 38 Others include muckraker Ida Tarbell, who wrote a biography of Napolean Bonaparte; journalist I.F. Stone, whose final book was on the trial of Socrates; and British TV reporter Godfrey Hodgson, whose America in Our Time: From World War II to Nixon, What Happened and Why is considered one of the better histories of America's experience during the 1960s. 39 These were not "professional" historians, but they nevertheless contributed to the practice of history writing.
Moreover, studies that use the professionalization model
usually take one of two approaches: the structural- functionalist approach
or the power approach. 40 The former is predominant and derives from
sociological studies. It generally concentrates on identifying the characteristics
of a profession, judging whether an occupation fits the definition,
and assessing to what extent members of an occupation are "professionalized."
41 Those who adopt the power approach argue that the structural-functionalists
begin with the assumption that professionalization is good, that professions
are superior social forms, and that occupations should strive for professionalization.
The power approach, on the other hand, is informed by critical theory
and argues that professionalization is a process by which occupations
gain and maintain power positions within society. Studies using the
power approach concentrate on how professionalization leads to inequities
in society and how professionalization limits an occupation or the practitioner
of an occupation. 42
Power-approach studies of journalism see professionalization as a negative force separating journalists from their audiences, subordinating the individual journalist to the news corporation by restricting autonomy, or usurping power from the masses or other institutions and occupations in society. 45 The positive growth of the practice through internal development (the fact, for example, that news reporting has improved) remains unexamined.
Lambeth (1990, 1991, 1992) noted the inadequacies of
most scholarship on the development of journalistic standards when he
suggested that a new analytic tool was needed to "sharpen the appreciation
of how standards of excellence in journalism are or can be established,
maintained and raised." 46 That is to say, the professionalization
model has failed to move journalism scholarship forward. Lambeth has
been the first to suggest that the MacIntyre social practice model offers
an alternative. 47
However, for the purpose of this study, the question of professionalization is viewed as less important than the larger question of development of the practice. For journalism is a "practice," using a Rawlsian definition that a practice is "any form of activity specified by a system of rules." 48 And it has the potential of being a "social practice," using a MacIntyrean definition that a social practice as a coherent, complex, cooperative human activity in a social setting in which its members seek internal goods and carry out activities in pursuit of standards of excellence. 49 All professions are practices and have the potential of being a social practice; but not all social practices are professions. The social practice paradigm, then, does not supercede the professionalization paradigm; it complements it. And considering its advantages over the professionalization paradigm -- not the least being the ability to step above the continuing controversy over whether journalism is a profession or not -- the social practice paradigm, for the purposes of studying the dynamics and development of journalism, is superior.
Outline of the Social Practice Paradigm
The social practice paradigm has been discussed at length
by contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, but its origin
is in the ethics of Aristotle. Good work, Aristotle argued, occurs when
a person acting virtuously does the work. 50 In other words, morality
is based in the actor, not the action. The actor must act in accordance
with the cardinal virtues of justice, courage, wisdom, and temperance.
51 However, for the actor to develop "practical reason" --
to learn to do right -- the actor must act. 52 There is a symbiosis,
then, between the practitioner and the practice. That is to say, the
practitioner improves as a practitioner through the act of applying
practical reason while doing the practice: Sherman (1989) argues that,
for Aristotle, "good character arises through the sorts of judgments,
emotions, and actions which approximate to the virtuous person's behaviour.
Practice takes place not in a vacuum, but in response to the requirements
of highly concrete, practical situations." 54 The character of
the practitioner improves (i.e., the practitioner gets better at what
he/she does) and, at the same time, the product improves through doing
the activity. But, as Sherman points out, Aristotle also taught that
progress will occur only when the doing of the practice is informed
by critical judgment and the teachings of those who are already good
at the practice. 54
Rawls agrees that rules that govern a practice are always
open to review by the practitioners. But he sees the review process
and any progress that results as mainly a rational exercise carried
out through dialogue with the affected parties. 64 MacIntyre splits
with Rawls in accepting the Aristotlean concept of progress-through-practice.
For Rawls, a practice improves through discussion by its members. For
MacIntyre, a practice improves through the act of individual members
systematically extending the practice's standards of excellence by doing
the practice better than it has been done before.
MacIntyre recognizes the necessity of institutions,
for institutions sustain practices by providing the external goods.
But therein lies the ironic tension between the institutions and the
practices, between the external goods and the internal goods. A practice,
such as journalism, requires the social power, status and money to be
effective in society, but it is those same goods that constantly threaten
the integrity of the practice. As MacIntyre explains, "the ideals
and the creativity of the practice are always vulnerable to the acquisitiveness
of the institution." 69 And this is where the Aristotlean/Fergusonian
virtues come into play: For only through exercise of the virtues can
the practice maintain its integrity. "Without them, without justice,
courage and truthfulness [and a sense of tradition], practices could
not resist the corrupting power of institutions." 70
Second, the activity must be such that "goods
internal" to the activity are achieved through performance of the
practice, as practitioners strive toward standards of excellence. In
other words, there is an integral connection between the practice and
its standards of excellence, such that when the standards are met, the
values internal to the practice are met. For example, if the making
of profit is recognized as a mark of excellence in a practice such as
journalism, there would be incongruity between the standard of excellence
and the internal values of the activity, which would include such things
as telling the whole story, providing a representative view of society
and telling the truth. Hence, news organizations in the United States,
which have among their goals the making of money, are not engaged in
a practice. Journalists, committed to the values of journalism rather
than profit-making, can be said to be involved in a practice. 75
|1 Clifford G. Christians,
Quentin J. Schultze and Norman H. Sims, "Community, Epistemology
and Mass Media Ethics," Journalism History, 5:2, Summer 1978, 38.
See also, Mary O. Furner, Advocacy & Objectivity: A Crisis in the
Professionalization of American Social Science, 1865-1905 (Lexington,
KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1975) and Samuel Haber, The Quest
for Authority and Honor in the American Professions, 1750-1900 (Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1991).
2 Ibid. The ascendancy of the common man in the age of Jackson set up a social conflict that initially led to the downgrading of the traditional professions, which were seen as exclusionary, elitest, and authoritarian. This led to a partial discrediting of the traditional professions. State legislatures, which once provided legal protections to the professions, turned against them, removing laws from the books that allowed the professions to require minimum levels of college education, licensing examinations, and other regulations. Proprietary schools flourished, offering medical and legal degrees after reduced levels of training. Theological seminaries turned out ministers without college educations [Samuel Haber, The Quest for Authority and Honor in the American Professions, 1750-1900 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 105].
4 Christians et al, 39.
5 Ibid, 39-40.
6 Frank Luther Mott, The Professional Element in Journalism (Columbia, Mo.: Crippled Turtle Press, 1949) 1.
7 Everette E. Dennis and John C. Merrill represent the two sides of this controversy in their published debate on the issue in Dennis and Merrill, Basic Issues in Mass Communication (New York: Macmillan, 1984), 149-160.
8 Randal A. Beam, "Professionalism as an Organizational Concept," paper presented to the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, July 1988.
9 Dennis and Merrill, Ibid., and John C. Merrill, The Dialectic in Journalism: Toward a Responsible Use of Press Freedom (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989), 188-189. See also, Merrill, "Professionalization: Danger to Press Freedom and Pluralism," Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 1:2, Spring/Summer, 1986, 56-60.
10 Edmund Lambeth, Committed Journalism: An Ethic for the Profession (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1991), 106-107.
11 See for example, Mary M. Cronin, "A Master for the Watchdog: The Progressive Era Trade Press' Role in Promoting Professional Values and Ethics Among Journalists," unpublished paper presented to the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication annual meeting, Boston, Mass., August 1991; Patricia L. Dooley, "The Professionalization Process in American Journalism: The Watchful-Eye Duty of Newspaper Publishers and Editors in Nineteenth-Century Libel Trials," paper presented to the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, August 1991; John R. Bender, "The Free Press-Fair Trial Issue and Journalistic Professionalism: Practices in News Coverage of Crime and Criminal Proceedings, 1891-1980," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri, 1991; Mary M. Cronin and James McPherson, "Reaching for Professionalism and Respectability: The Development of Ethics Codes in the 1920s," paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Journalism Historians Association annual convention, 1992; Stephen A. Banning, "The Missouri Press Association: A Study of the Beginning Motivations, 1867-1876," paper presented to the American Journalism Historians Association annual convention, 1992; and Bruce Garrison, Professional News Writing (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990).
12 Bender, Ibid.
13 Dooley, Ibid.
14 Ibid, 3.
15 Cronin and McPherson, Ibid.
16 Michael Schudson, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic Books, 1978), particularly chapers 4 and 5, pp. 121-183. Others who have used this approach include M. Janowitz, "Professional Models in Journalism: The Gatekeeper and the Advocate," Journalism Quarterly, 52, 1975, 618-626; J.W.C. Johnstone, E.J. Slawski, and W.W. Bowman, "The Professional Values of American Newsmen," Public Opinion Quarterly 36(4), 1972-73, 522-540; E.B. Phillips, "Approaches to Objectivity: Journalistic vs. Social Science Perspectives," in P. Hirsch, P. Miller, and F.G. Kline (Eds.), Strategies for Communication Research (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1977), 63-77; and G. Tuchman, "Objectivity as Strategic Ritual: An Examination of Newsmen's Notions of Objectivity," American Journal of Sociology, 77, 1972, 660-679.
17 Randal A. Beam, "Journalism Professionalism as an Organizational-Level Concept," Journalism Monographs, 121, June 1990, 2-3.
18 J.M. McLeod and S.E. Hawley Jr., "Professionalization Among Newsmen," Journalism Quarterly, 41, 1964, 529-539; J.M. McLeod and R. Rush, "Professionalization of Latin American and U.S. Journalists, Part I," Journalism Quarterly, 46, 1969a, 583-590; J.M. McLeod and R. Rush, "Professionalization of Latin American and U.S. Journalists, Part II," Journalism Quarterly, 46, 1969b, 784-789; D. Menanteau-Horta, "Professionalism of Journalists in Chile," Journalism Quarterly, 44, 1967, 715-724; B. Garrison and M. Salwen, "Professional Orientations of Sports Journalists,"Newspaper Research Journal, 1989, 10(3), 77-84; P. Golding, "Media Professionalism in the Third World: The Transfer of an Ideology," in J. Curran, M. Gurevitch, and J. Woollacott (Eds.), Mass Communication and Society (Beverly Hills Sage, 1977), 291-308; D.J. LeRoy, "Levels of Professionalism in a Sample of TV Newsmen, Journal of Broadcasting, 17, 1972-73, 51-62; D.S. Weinthal and G.J. O'Keefe, "Professionalization Among Broadcast Newsmen in an Urban Area," Journal of Broadcasting, 18, 1974, 193-209; B. Linehan, Professional Orientation of Newsmen on State Dailies: A Wisconsin Newsmen Study, unpublished master's thesis, Univesity of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisc., 1970; D. Wright, "Professionalism Levels of British Columbia's Broadcast Journalists: A Communicator Analysis,"Gazette, 22, 1976, 38-48; O. Nayman, B.D. McKee, and D.L. Lattimore, "PR Personnel and Print Journalists: A Comparison of Professionalism," Journalism Quarterly, 54, 1977, 492-497; O. Nayman, "Professional Orientations of Journalists: An Introduction to Communicator Analysis Studies," Gazette, 19, 1973, 195-212; J.H. Bissland and T.L. Rentner, "Education's Role in Professionalizing Public Relations: A Progress Report," Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 4(1), 1989, 92-105; and Janowitz, op. cit.
19 L.B. Becker, I.A. Sobowale, and R.E. Cobbey, "Reporters and Their Professional and Organizational Commitment," Journalism Quarterly, 56, 1979, 753-763; D. Birkhead, "News Media Ethics and the Management of Professionals," Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 1(2), 1986, 37-46; W.W. Graf, Professionalism: A Case Study of Its Effects on Newspaper Performance, unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisc., 1971; D.L. Lattimore, Professionalism and Performance: An Investigation of Colorado Daily Newspapers, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisc., 1972; K.A. Idsvoog and J.L. Hoyt, "Professionalism and Performance of Television Journalists, "Journal of Broadcasting, 21, 1977, 97-109; J. Soloski, "News Reporting and Professionalism: Some Constraints on the Reporting of the News," paper presented to the Qualitative Studies Division, AEJMC annual meeting, Gainesville, Fla., August 1984; J. Merrill, "Journalistic Professionalization: Danger to Freedom and Pluralism," Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 1(2), 1986, 56-60.
20 This study extends the argument found in Edmund Lambeth, "Waiting for a New St. Benedict: Alasdair MacIntyre and the Theory and Practice of Journalism," first published in The Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 5(2), Summer 1990, and reprinted in Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 9(1&2), 1991, 97-108, and in a slightly altered version, in Lambeth, Committed Journalism: An Ethic for the Profession, 2nd Ed. (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1992), 72-82.
21 William David Sloan, Makers of the Media Mind: Journalism Educators and Their Ideas (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990). An example of an untrained journalist doing journalism is Frances Mendenhall, an Omaha dentist, who founded the Nebraska Observer in 1983 as an alternative to the Omaha World-Herald. See also, John Eisendrath, "Have Mac, Will Publish: Today's Alternative Papers Are Surprisingly Good. Here's Why," The Washington Monthly, June 1989, 28-36.
22 David H. Weaver and G. Cleveland Wilhoit, American Journalist: A Portrait of U.S. News People and Their Work (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986).
23 The Society of Professional Journalists and the American Society of News Editors, for example, have published codes of ethics. Individual news organizations, such as the Washington Post and CBS news, also have published their own. See also, Cronin and McPherson, op. cit.
24 Andrew Radolf, "National News Council Folds," Editor and Publisher, March 31, 1984, 9, 28-29; Elie Abel, "What Killed the Council," Columbia Journalism Review, July/August 1984, 61.
25 David Shaw, "Journalistic Ethics . . . Public Discussion, Private Soul-Searching," Louisville Courier Journal, October 4, 1981, D3.
26 Mott, op. cit., 18; Lambeth, op. cit., 108.
27 Associated Press v. National Labor Relations Board, 1 Med.L.Rptr. 2689, 301 U.S. 103, 57 S.CT 650, 81 L.Ed. 953 (1937).
28 George Kennedy, "Is Journalism a Profession?" Freedom of Information Center Report No. 359, September 1976, 1.
29 The Express-News Corp. v. International Typographical Union No. 172, NLRB Case 23-RC-4219.
30 Sherwood v. The Washington Post, 15 Med.L.Prtr. 1692, 677 F.Supp. 9 (D.D.C. 1988).
31 Judge Gesell specifically pointed out that The Washington Post is not an entry-level employer of reporters and editors. He stressed that to be hired at the Post, a reporter or editor has to have considerable experience and to show expertise in journalistic writing skills that meet well-defined criteria of the Post management.
32 Dalheim v. KDFW-TV, 15 Med.L.Rptr. 2393 (N.D.Tex. 1988).
33 Robert Khowy, "Demythologizing the Professions," International Review of History and Political Science, 17, 1970, 57-70, for example, argues that the definition of a profession has been skewed in favor of the traditional professions such as medicine and law, so of course other occupations would have difficulty meeting the definition. In addition, Mott, op.cit., makes his argument that journalism has reached professional status in spite of the fact that it doesn't meet all the requirements of the profession definition, arguing that those particular requirements are unnecessary for the designation; Penn Kimball, "Journalism: Art, Craft or Profession?" in Kenneth C. Lynn and the editors of Daedalus (Eds.) The Professions in America (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1965) argues that professionalization is a state of mind, which journalists have acquired.
34 Robert Coles, Children of Crisis (New York: Little, Brown, 1964).
35 Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry (New York: Basic, 1982).
36 Allan Bloom, The Closing of the American Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987).
37 John Higham, History: Professional Scholarship in America (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1983); Peter Novick, That Noble Dream: The `Objectivity Question' and the American Historical Profession (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
38 Sloan, 92; Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines (5 vol.) (New York: D. Appleton; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930-1968).
39 Ida Tarbell, The Life of Napolean Bonaparte: With a Sketch of Josephine, Empress of the French (New York: McClure and Phillips, 1906); I.F. Stone, The Trial of Socrates (New York: Little, Brown, 1988); Godfrey Hodgson, America in Our Time: From World War II to Nixon: What Happened and Why (New York: Vintage, 1978).
40 Allison, 5-7.
41 Examples of journalism studies using the structural-functionalist approach are Oguz Nayman, "Professional Orientations of Journalists: An Introduction to Communicator Analysis Studies," Gazette, 19, 1973, 195-202; Jack McLeod and Searle E. Hawley, "Professionalization Among Newsmen" Journalism Quarterly, 41, 1964, 529-588; Oguz Nayman, Blaine K. McKee, and Dan L. Lattimore, "PR Personnel and Print Journalists: A Comparison of Professionalism," Journalism Quarterly, 54, 1977, 492-497; J. Johnstone, E. Slawski, and W. Bowman, "The Professional Values of American Newsmen," Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 1972-73, 522-540; and Dooley, op.cit.
42 Examples of journalism studies using the power approach are Gaye Tuchman, "Professionalism as an Agent of Legitimation," Journal of Communication, 28, 1978, 106-113; John Dimmick, "Canons and Codes as Occupational Ideologies," Journal of Communication, 27, 1977, 181-187; Warren Breed, "Social Control in the Newsroom: A Functional Analysis,"Social Forces, 33, May 1955, 326-335; and John Soloski, op.cit.
43 Studies of foreign journalists often fall into this classification. See, for example, Jack McLeod and Ramona R. Rush, 1969b, op.cit. Oguz Nayman, Dan L. Lattimore and Manuel Alers-Montalvo, "A Survey of Journalists in Barcelona, Spain: Problems and Expectations," Gazette, 20, 1974, 224-232.
44 John Hohenberg, The Professional Journalist (3rd ed.), (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1973); Garrison, op.cit.; Hiley H. Ward, Professional Newswriting (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985); James Carey, "The Communications Revolution and the Professional Communicator," The Sociological Review Monograph, No. 13: Sociology of Mass Media Communicators, 1969, 23-38.
45 Magali Sarfatti Larson, The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977); Soloski, op.cit.
46 Lambeth, op.cit. I am indebted to Dr. Lambeth for his insights into this issue. While criticism of the professionalization model was implicit in his published articles and book chapter, cited here, it was made explicit during class lectures he gave at the University of Missouri School of Journalism, and during private conversations he ad with me.
48 John Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules," The Philosophical Review, 64:1, January 1955, 3.
49 Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981), 182.
50 Nancy Sherman, The Fabric of Character: Aristotle's Theory of Virtue (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 178-180.
51 Aristotle, "The Nicomachean Ethics," in Robert E. Dewey and Robert H. Hurlbutt III (Eds.), An Introduction to Ethics (New York: Macmillan, 1977), 279-296; see also: Clifford G. Christians, Kim B. Rotzoll and Mark Fackler, Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning, 2nd Ed. (New York: Longman, 1987, 9.
52 Sherman, op.cit.
53 Ibid, 190-191.
54 Ibid, 179-180.
55 Adam Ferguson, Principles of Moral and Political Science, vols. 1 & 2 (New York: AMS Press, 1973, reprint of 1792 edition, Edinburgh: A.Strahan, T. Cadell, and W. Creech), esp. Vol. 1, 204-208, Vol. 2, 114.
56 Ibid, Vol. 2, 330-332.
57 Ibid, Vol. 1, 1973 preface by Lawrence V. Castiglione, iv.
58 MacIntyre, 182.
59 Rawls, "Two Concepts of Rules," 1.
60 Ibid, 26.
61 Ibid, 24.
62 Ibid, 24-27; see also, John Rawls, "Justice as Fairness," The Philosophical Review, 67:2, 164-194.
63 MacIntyre, 175.
64 Rawls, "Justice," 171; This cite is one of the few places Rawls refers specifically to practices and institutions, and it is not clear how he would distinguish between them. He writes: Since these persons are conceived as engaging in their common practices, which are already established, there is no question of our supposing them to come together to deliberate as to how they will set these practices up for the first time. Yet we can imagine that from time to time they discuss with one another whether any of them has a legitimate complaint against their established institutions.
65 Ibid, 164.
66 MacIntyre, 181.
67 Dewey and Hurlbutt, 258-259; John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971).
68 Ibid, 185.
69 Ibid, 181.
71 Ibid, 182.
72 Ibid, 175.
73 Ferguson, Vol. 1, 206.
74 Alasdair MacIntyre, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed., (Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1984), 258.
75 Lambeth, op.cit., identifies internal goods for journalism to be "telling the whole story"; "truth-telling"; "choosing words and pictures for clarity, precision and verve"; reporting that serves the public interest; gathering, writing and editing the news with fairness; keeping the reader squarely in mind; preserving the First Amendment rights of free expression (1991, 98).
76 Sherman, 179; Ferguson, op.cit., Vol 1, 209-212.
77 Sherman, 179.
78 MacIntyre, 1981, 177.
80 Ibid, 178.
82 Ibid, 180.
83 Ibid, 181.